Together with C. Mouhot and L. Silvestre, we just uploaded on hal and arxiv a new preprint entitled *Gaussian lower bounds for the Boltzmann equation*.

Abstract: * The study of positivity of solutions to the Boltzmann equation goes back to Carleman (1933), and the initial argument of Carleman was developed byPulvirenti-Wennberg (1997), the second author and Briant (2015). The appearance of a lower bound with Gaussian decay had however remained an open question for long-range interactions (the so-called non-cutoff collision kernels). We answer this question and establish such Gaussian lower bound for solutions to the Boltzmann equation without cutoff, in the case of hard and moderately soft potentials, with spatial periodic conditions, and under the sole assumption that hydrodynamic quantities (local mass, local energy and local entropy density) remain bounded. The paper is mostly self-contained, apart from the uniform upper bound on the solution established by the third author (2016).*